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1

F. Fukuyama, The end of History?, The National Interest 16 (1989), pp. 3-18; F. Fukuyama, The End of History and the Last Man (London, 1992).

2

. N. Podhoretz, World War IV. The Long Struggle against Islamofascism (New York, 2007).

3

. W. Taubman, Khrushchev. The Man and His Era (London, 2002), p. 511.

4

. . . . Carr, The Russian Revolution: From Lenin to Stalin (1917-1929) (London, 1979). . Talcott Parsons, The System of Modern Societies (Englewood Cliffs, 1971), ch. 6; D. Engerman, Modernization from the Other Shore: American Intellectuals and the Romance of Economic Development (Cambridge, Mass., 2003).

5

S. Courtois, Introduction' S. Courtois et al., The Black Book of Communism. Crimes, Terror, Repression (Cambridge, Mass., 1999)' pp. 1-31.

6

, , ., , R. Tucker, Stalin in Power. The Revolution from Above, 1928-1941 (New York, 1990), pp. 60-4

7

., , . Malia, The Soviet Tragedy (New York, 1994).

8

., , Courtois, 'Introduction', p. 16.

9

Aeschylus, Prometheus Bound, trans, and ed. A. Podliecki (Oxford, 2005), II. 1041-53. . . . .: , 1971.

10

. Marx and F. Engels, Collected Works (London, 1976), vol. I, p. 31.

11

. . Ozouf, Festivals and the French Revolution, A. Sheridan (Cambridge, Mass., 1988); Warren Roberts, Jacques Louis David, Revolutionary Artist: Art, Politics and the French Revolution (Chapel Hill, 1989), pp. 292-3.

12

L. Hunt, Politics, Culture, and Class in the French Revolution (London, 1986), p. 99.

13

, . 107.

14

. Hunt, Politics, pp. 94-103; James A. Leith, Space and Revolution. Projects for Monuments, Squares and Public Buildings in France, 1789-1799 (Montreal, 1991), pp. 130-4.

15

, , . . J. Talmon, The Origins of Totalitarian Democracy (Harmondsworth, 1986). . P. Higgonet, Goodness Beyond Virtue. Jacobins during the French Revolution (Cambridge, Mass., 1998), p. 330. . . Van Ree, The Political Thought of Joseph Stalin. A Study in Twentieth-Century Revolutionary Patriotism (London, 2002).

16

. David Bell, The Cult of the Nation in France. Inventing Nationalism, 1680-1800, (Cambridge, Mass., 2001), pp. 146-54. . W. Sewell, A Rhetoric of Bourgeois Revolution. The Abbe Sieyes and What is the Third Estate? (Durham, NC, 1994), p. 62.

17

- Bell, The Cult of Nation, p. 151.

18

-, - Hunt, Politics, p. 27. . . Ozouf, La Revolution Frangaise et l'idee de Thomme nouveau . Lucas (ed.), The French Revolution and the Creation of Modern Political Culture. Vol. 2: The Political Culture of the French Revolution (Oxford, 1988).

19

, - : E.-J. Sieyes, Quest-ce que le tiers etat? (Paris, 1988); Sewell, Rhetoric, pp. 103-4.

20

- N. Parker, Portrayals of Revolution. Images, Debates and Patterns of Thought on the French Revolution (Carbondale, 111., 1990), pp. 83-7.

21

- F. Hemmings, Culture and Society in France 1789 -1848 (London, 1987), p. 25; Roberts, Jacques-Louis David, pp. 16-29.

22

J.-J. Rousseau, 'Considerations on the Government of Poland and on Its Projected Reformation', The Social Contract and Other Later Political Writings, V. Gourevitch (Cambridge, 1977), p. 227. . A.-L. Saint-Just, Oeuvres completes, ed. C. Vellay (Paris, 1908), vol. II, p. 327. . Higgonet, Goodness, p. 1.

23

- J.-J. Rousseau, The Social Contract, . . Cranston (Harmondsworth, 1968), bk. 2.

24

J. Shklar, Men and Citizens: a Study of Rousseau's Social Theory (Cambridge, 1969), p. 206.

25

J.-J. Rousseau, Julie, ou la Nouvelle Heloise, . Thompson (Paris, 1966). . N. Fermon, Domesticating Passions. Rousseau, Woman and the Nation (Hanover, NH, 1997). . Shklar, Men and Citizens pp. 150-4.

26

. Baker, Inventing the French Revolution: Essays on French Political Culture in the Eighteenth Century (Cambridge, 1990), p. 135

27

D. Jordan, The Revolutionary Career of Maximilien Robespierre (London, 1985), p. 160.

28

M. Robespierre, Oeuvres complutes, ed. E. Hamel (10 vols.) (Paris, 1903-68), vol. i, p. 211.

29

Jordan, Revolutionary Career, p. 142.

30

S. Marechal, 'Le jugement dernier des rois', L. Moland, Theatre de la revolution: ou, choix de pieces de theatre qui ontfait sensation pendant la periode revolutionnaire (Paris, 1877).

31

R. Rose, Gracchus Babeuf: the First Revolutionary Communist (Stanford, 1978), p. 11.

32

, . 140.

33

J. Lynn, Trench Opinion and the Military Resurrection of the Pike, 1792-1794, Military Affairs (1977), p. 3.

34

K. Adler, Engineering the Revolution. Arms and Enlightenment in France, 1763-1815 (Princeton, 1997), pp. 264-5, 255.

35

J. Lynn, The Bayonets of the Republic: Motivation and Tactics in the Army of Revolutionary France, 1791-94 (Urbana, 111., 1984), p. 173.

36

D. Bell, The First Total War: Napoleon's Europe and the Birth of Modern Warfare (London, 2007), p. 131.

37

A. Forrest, The Soldiers of the French Revolution (Durham, NC, 1990), p. 160.

38

. . Lucas, The Structure of the Terror: the Example ofJavogues and the Loire (Oxford, 1973).

39

Robespierre, Oeuvres, vol. X, p. 357.

40

J. Hardman, Robespierre (London, 1999), p. 137.

41

, . 127.

42

. Higgonet, Goodness, pp. 118-20.

43

Hunt, Politics, pp. 76-7.

44

. , . . . . ., 1962. . 1. . 247

45

. Adhemar, 'La Liberte sur les barricades de Delacroix, etudic d'apres des documents inedits', Gazette des Beaux Arts 43 (1954)' p. 88. . . Clark, The Absolute Bourgeois. Artists and Politics in France 1848-1851 (London, 1999), pp. 18-20; B. Joubert Delacroix (Princeton, 1998).

46

. F. Furet, Marx and the French Revolution, trans. D. Furet (Chicago, 1988).

47

, . 21.

48

P. Buonarotti, Conspiration pour Vegalite dite de Babeuf: suivie du proces auquel elle donna lieu, et des pieces justicatives (Brussels, 1828), vol. II, pp. 132-8; R. Rose, Gracchus Babeuf: the First Revolutionary Communist (Stanford, 1978), 213.

49

R. Hunt, The Political Ideas of Marx and Engels (2 vols.) (London, 1984), vol. I, pp. 155-6. . . Lattek, Revolutionary Refugees. German Socialism in Britain, 1840-1860 (London, 2006), ch. 2.

50

, . G. Stedman Jones, 'Introduction', . Marx and F. Engels, The Communist Manifesto (London, 2002), pp. 66, 69.

51

Fourier, The Theory of the Four Movements, eds. G. Stedman Jones and I. Patterson (Cambridge, 1996).

52

P.-J. Proudhon, What is Property?, eds. D. Kelley and B. Smith (Cambridge, 1994), p. 196.

53

R. Owen, Selected Works, vol. 3, The Book of the New Moral World, ed. G. Claeys (London, 1993), p. 292.

54

Keith Taylor (ed.), Henri Saint-Simon (1760-1825): Selected Writings on Science, Industry and Social Organization (London, 1975), PP. 166-8.

55

Reminiscences of Marx and Engels (Moscow, n.d), p. 130.

56

David McLellan, Karl Marx: a Biography (London, 1995), p. 12.

57

S. Barer, The Doctors of Revolution (London, 2000), pp. 548

58

L. P. Wessel, Prometheus Bound. The Mythic Structure of Karl Marxs Scientific Thinking (Baton Rouge, 1984), p. 118.

59

, . 119.

60

. Stedman Jones, Introduction, Marx and Engels, Communist Manifesto, pp. 50-71. . McLellan, Karl Marx, pp. 112 ff.

61

. A. Walicki, Marxism and the Leap to the Kingdom of Freedom (Stanford, 1995), p. 41.

62

. . Yack, The Longing for Total Revolution. Philosophic Sources of Social Discontent from Rousseau to Marx and Nietzsche (Berkeley, 1992), pp. 256 ff.

63

K. Marx, On James Mill, in K. Marx, The Early Texts, ed. D. McLellan (Oxford, 1971), p. 202.

64

K. Marx and F. Engels, Collected Works [MECW] (New York, 1975), vol. V, p. 47.

65

K. Marx, Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts of 1844, in Marx, Early Texts, pp. 146-7.

66

Barer, Doctors, p. 351.

67

. Walicki, Marxism, pp. 82-3.

68

Marx and Engels, Communist Manifesto, pp. 222-3.

69

, . 225.

70

, . 243_244

71

. D. Priestland, Stalinism and the Politics of Mobilization. Ideas, Power and Terrorin Inter-war Russia (Oxford, 2007), pp. 21-34. . . A. Gouldner, The Two Marxisms. Contradictions and Anomalies in the Development of Theory (London, 1980), p. 32; S. Hanson, Time and Revolution. Marxism and the Design of Soviet Institutions (Chapel Hill, 1997), pp. 37-55.

72

Diary of Norbert Truquin, in M. Traugott (ed.), The French Worker. Autobiographies from the Early Industrial Era (Berkeley, 1993), p. 276.

73

, . 285.

74

W. Sewell, Work and Revolution in France: the Language of Labor from the Old Regime to 1848 (Cambridge, 1980), ch. 9, 1831 . R. Bezucha, The Lyon Uprising of 1834: Social and Political Conflict in the Early July Monarchy (Cambridge, Mass., 1974), ch. 2.

75

MECW, vol. III, p. 313 (. 20).

76

Marx and Engels, Communist Manifesto, p. 258. See also A. Gilbert, Marxs Politics. Communists and Citizens (Oxford, 1981)- pp. 197, 217-19.

77

. , D. Lovell, From Marx to Lenin. An Evalutation of Marxs Responsibility for Soviet Authoritarianism (Cambridge, 1984). , , . Hunt, Political Ideas, pp. 284-336; H. Draper, Karl Marxs Theory of Revolution. Vol. Ill: The Dictatorship of the Proletariat (New York, 1986).

78

. G. Duveau, 1848. The Making of a Revolution, trans. A. Carter (London, 1967). . R. Bezucha, The French Revolution of 1848 and the Social History of Work, Theory and Society 12 (1983), pp. 469-84; M. Traugott, The Crowd in the French Revolution of February 1848, American Historical Review 93 (1988), pp. 638-52.

79

. R. Gould, Insurgent Identities: Class, Communities and Protest from 1848 to the Commune (Chicago, 1995).

80

. Gilbert, Marxs Politics, ch. 10.

81

. Marx and F. Engels, The Revolution of 1848-1849. Articles from the Neue Rhenische Zeitung, trans. S. Ryazanskaya, ed. B. Isaacs (New York, 1972), p. 136.

82

. Gilbert, Marxs Politics.

83

J. Sperber, The European Revolutions, 1848-1851 (Cambridge, 1994), p. 247.

84

J. Rougerie, Sur lhistoire de la Premiere Internationale, Mouvement Social, 51 (1965), pp. 23-46.

85

J. Rougerie, Le Proces des Communards (Paris, 1971), PP-155-6. , . . Johnson, The Paradise of Association. Political Culture and Popular Organization in the Paris Commune of 1871 (Ann Arbor, 1996).

86

MECW, vol. II, p. 189.

87

Y. Kapp, Eleanor Marx (London, 1972), vol. I, p. 88.

88

K. Marx and F. Engels, Communist Manifesto, p. 243.

89

. Marx, Critique of the Gotha Programme (Peking, 1974), pp. 15-21. . Walicki, Marxism, p. 96.

90

. D. Lovell, From Marx to Lenin. An Evaluation of Marxs Responsibility for Soviet Authoritarianism (Cambridge, 1984), pp. 61-4.

91

K. Marx and F. Engels, Gesprache mit Marx und Engels, ed. H. Enzensberger (Frankfurt, 1973), vol. II, pp. 709-10.

92

McLellan, Karl Marx, p. 371.

93

. . Mann, Sources of Social Power. Vol. 2: The Rise of Classes and Welfare States, 1760-1914 (Cambridge, 1993), pp. 597-601.

94

. D. Geary, European Labour Protest, 1848-1939 (London, 1981), pp. 35-7. . Mann, Sources of Power, vol. II, pp. 597-601, 680-2. Geary , . Geary, European Labour Protest, pp. 107-26.

95

D. Baguley, Germinal: The Gathering Storm, in B. Nelson (ed.), Cambridge Companion to Zola (Cambridge, 2007), p. 139.

96

E. Zola, Germinal, trans. P. Collier (Oxford, 1993), p. 288.

97

, . 349. - . ; . (., 1981).

98

, . 523- - . ; . (., 1981).

99

. Mann, Sources of Power, vol. II, chs.17-18; G. Eley, Forging Democracy. The History of the Left in Europe, 1850-2000 (New York, 2002), pp. 64-5, 79.

100

The Diary of Nikolaus Osterroth, in The German Worker. Working-Class Autobiographies from the Age of Industrialization, trans, and ed. A. Kelly (Berkeley, 1987), pp. 170-1.

101

, . 172.

102

, . 187.

103

E. Weitz, Creating German Communism 1890-1990: From Popular Protests to Socialist State (Princeton, 1997), p. 51.

104

The German Worker, p. 409.

105

V. Lidtke, The Alternative Culture: Socialist Labor in Imperial Germany (New York, 1985), pp. 186-7.

106

The Diary of Otto Krille, in The German Worker, p. 276.

107

. S. Berger, Germany, in The Force of Labour, eds. S. Berger and D. Broughton (Oxford, 1995), p. 73.

108

Lidtke, Alternative Culture; B. Emig, Die Veredelung des Arbeiters. Sozialdemokratie als Kulturbewegung (Frankfurt am Main, 1980).

109

Lidtke, Alternative Culture, p. 88.

110

, . 107-8; . . K"orner, Das Lied von einer anderen Welt. Kulturelle Praxis im franzosischen und deutschen Arbeitermilieu 1840-1890 (Frankfurt am Main, 1997), p. 117.

111

Weitz, Creating German Communism, p. 50.

112

Lidtke, Alternative Culture, p. 52.

113

Diary of Otto Krille, in The German Worker, pp. 267-8.

114

Eley, Forging Democracy, p. 79.

115

K. Kautsky, Selected Political Writings, trans, and ed. P. Goode (London, 1983), pp. 11-12.

116

S. Hickey, Workers in Imperial Germany: the Miners of the Ruhr (Oxford, 1985).

117

J. Rupnik, The Czech Socialists and the Nation (1848-1918), in E. Cahm and V. Fisera (eds.), Socialism and Nationalism in Contemporary Europe (1848-1945), vol. II (Nottingham, 1979).

118

R. Evans, Proletarians and Politics. Socialism, Protest and the Working Class in Germany before the First World War (New York, 1990), p. 93.

119

August Bebel, Die Frau und der Sozialismus, S. Berger, Social Democracy and the Working Class in Nineteenth and Twentieth Century Germany (Harlow, 2000), p. 89.

120

. James Joll, The Second International (London, 1968), p. 33.

121

, . 45.

122

G. Steenson, Karl Kautsky, 1854-1938: Marxism in the Classical Years (Pittsburgh, 1991), p. 47.

123

G. Steenson, Not One Man! Not One Penny! German Social Democracy, 1863-1914 (Pittsburgh, 1981), pp. 120-1.

124

Steenson, Karl Kautsky, pp. 120-1.

125

H. Goldberg, Life of Jean Jaures (Madison, 1962), ch. 11.

126

J. Miller, From Elite to Mass Politics. Italian Socialism in the Giolittian Era, 1900-1914 (Kent, Ohio, 1990), pp. 25-9.

127

, 1914 , . . Schorske, German Social Democracy. The Development of the Great Schism (Cambridge, Mass., 1955); , , . W. Kruse, Krieg und nationalc Integration. Eine Neuinterpretation des sozialdemokratischen Burgfriedensschlusses, 1914-15 (Essen, 1993).

128

P. Gay, The Dilemma of Democratic Socialism. Eduard Bernsteins Challenge to Marx (New York, 1952), p. 296.

129

. . Steger, The Quest for Evolutionary Socialism. Eduard Bernstein and Social Democracy (Cambridge, 1997).

130

- . R. Fletcher, Revisionism and Empire. Socialist Imperialism in Germany, 1897-1914 (London, 1984).

131

. Mitchell and P. Stearns, Workers and Protest: the European Labor Movement, the Working Classes and the Origins of Social Democracy, 1890-1914 (Itasca, 111., 1971), p. 211.

132

. N. Stargardt, The German Idea of Militarism (Cambridge, 1994), p. 148.

133

, G. Haupt, Socialism and the Great War. The Collapse of the Second International (Oxford, 1972), p. 208.

134

Joll, The Second International, p. 178.

135

- (1927), . B. . . A. Sargeant, Vsevolod Pudovkin. Classic Films of the Soviet Avant-Garde (London, 2000), pp. 94-5.

136

. V. Kepley, The End of St Petersburg: The Film Companion (London, 2003).

137

R. Wortman, Scenarios of Power: Myth and Ceremony in Russian Monarchy, Vol. 2: From Alexander II to the Abdication of Nicholas II (Princeton, 2000), pp. 351-8.

138

Wortman, Scenarios of Power, p. 354.

139

, . 362. . cc. 358-64.

140

S. Kanatchikov, A Radical Worker in Tsarist Russia: the Autobiography of Semen Ivanovich Kanatchikov, trans, and ed. R. Zelnik (Stanford, 1986), p. 45.

141

G. Freeze, The Soslovie (Estate) Paradigm and Russian Social History, American Historical Review, 91 (1986), pp. 11-36.

142

. . Figes, A People.s Tragedy. The Russian Revolution, 1891-1924 (London, 1996), pp. 98-102.

143

Kanatchikov, Radical Worker, pp. 9-10.

144

. McDaniel, Autocracy, Capitalism and Revolution in Russia (Berkeley, 1988), p. 172.

145

. I. Paperno, Chernyshevsky and the Age of Realism: a Study in the Semiotics of Behavior (Stanford, 1988), pp. 30-2.

146

J. Scanlan, Chernyshevsky and Rousseau, in A. Mikotin (ed.), Western Philosophical Systems in Russian Literature: a Collection of Critical Studies (Los Angeles, 1979), pp. 103-6.

147

N. Chernyshevskii, What is to be Done? Tales about New People, trans. B. Tucker, expanded by Porter (London, 1982), pp. 320-6.

148

, , , , A. Drozd, Chernyshevskii s What is to be Done?: A Reevaluation (Evanston, 2001).

149

. . Ingerflom, Le Citoyen impossible. LesRacines russes du leninisme (Paris, 1988), pp. 60-1.

150

Drozd, Chernyshevskii, What is to be Done?

151

. . ? .: , 1975. . 228

152

, . 242.

153

, . 228-260.

154

. S. Morrissey, Heralds of Revolution: Russian Students and the Mythologies of Radicalism (New York, 1998), p. 19.

155

, . 25.

156

. F. Venturi, Roots of Revolution. A History of the Socialist and Populist Movements in Nineteenth Century Russia, trans. F. Haskell (New York, 1966), pp. 429-68.

157

A. Gleason, Young Russia. The Genesis of Russian Radicalism in the 1860s (Chicago, 1980), p. 356.

158

Daniel Field, Peasants and Propagandists in the Russian Movement to the People of 1874, Journal of Modern History 59 (1987), pp. 415-38.

159

A. Geifman, Thou Shalt Kill. Revolutionary Terrorism in Russia, 1894-1917 (Princeton, 1993), pp. 20-1.

160

N. Valentinov, Encounters with Lenin, trans. Paul Rosta and Brian Pearce (Oxford, 1968), p. 23. . . -. . -: - . , 1953. 370 .

161

A. Resis, Das Kapital Comes to Russia, Slavic Review 29 (1970), p. 121.

162

Morrissey, Heralds, pp. 75-80.

163

R. Service, Lenin. A Biography (Basingstoke, 2005), pp. 21-9; C. Read, Lenin. A Revolutionary Life (London, 2005), p. 7.

164

Service, Lenin, pp. 21-9; Read, Lenin, pp. 4-9. . , , (. 2-. . . -. ., 1970. . 777&).

165

. Read, Lenin, p. .

166

Service, Lenin, pp. 100-1.

167

N. Krupskaya, Memories of Lenin, trans. E. Verney (London, 1970), pp. 264-5.

168

V. Lenin, Selected Works [SW] (Moscow, 1977), vol. II, p. 304.

169

Valentinov, Encounters, pp. 67-8. . . -. . -: - . , 1953. 370 .

170

Service, Lenin, p. 115.

171

Krupskaya, Memories, p. 17.

172

. R. Pipes, Struve: Liberal on the Left (Cambridge, Mass., 1970), p. 195. , . . .

173

A. Walicki, Marxism and the Leap to the Kingdom of Freedom (Stanford, 1995), pp. 298-9.

174

. . . []. ., 1965-1968. . 5-. . VI. . 99-, 171.

175

. . . , . VIII, . 379.

176

. Ingerflom, Citoyen impossible, ch. 11.

177

L. Lih, How a Founding Document was Found, or One Hundred Years of Lenins What is to be Done?, Kritika, 4 (2003), pp. 5-49.

178

. . . . 47 . ., 1960-1970. . XXXIV, . 64.

179

A. Ascher, 1905. Vol. 1: Russia in Disarray (Stanford, 1988), p. 91.

180

III . ., 1959, . 262.

181

L. Trotsky, 1905 (Moscow, n.d.).

182

N. Harding, Lenins Political Thought. Theory and Practice in the Democratic Revolutions (London, 1983), bk 1, pp. 213-48. , , . . . Donald, Marxism and Revolution. Karl Kautsky and the Russian Marxists (New Haven, 1993), pp. 87-93.

183

R. Hilferding, Finance Capital: a Study of the Latest Phase of Capitalist Development, trans, and eds. M. Watnick and S. Gordon (London, 1981).

184

. . . ., 1982.

185

A. Bely, Petersburg, trans. R. Maguire and J. Malmstad (Harmondsworth, 1983), pp. 51-2. . . . .: - , 1999. 976 .

186

, . 14. . . 51.

187

, . 214. . . 51.

188

. . R. Maguire and J. Malmstad, Petersburg, in J. Malmstad (ed.), Andrey Bely. Spirit of Symbolism (Ithaca, 1987), pp. 133-134.

189

Bely, Petersburg, p. 64. . . 51.

190

, . 65.

191

. J. Sanborn, Drafting the Russian Nation. Military Conscription, Total War, and Mass Politics, 1905-1925 (Dekalb, 111-2003), p. 33.

192

L. Siegelbaum, The Politics of Industrial Mobilization in Russia, 1914-17: a Study of the War Industries Committees (London, 1983), ch. 3.

193

P. Holquist, Making War, Forging Revolution: Russias Continuum of Crisis, 1914-1921 (Cambridge, Mass., 2002), pp. 26-36.

194

O.FigesandB.Kolomtskii,InterpretingtheRussianRevolution: the Language and Symbols 0/1917 (New Haven, 1999), p. 31.

195

J. von Geldern, Bolshevik Festivals 1917-1920 (Berkeley, 1993), P. 23.

196

Figes and Kolonitskii, Interpreting the Russian Revolution, pp. 70, 62.

197

, . 40, 62-64.

198

. A. Wildman, The End of the Russian Imperial Army (Princeton, 1980), vol. I, pp. 228-45.

199

., , , -, 9 1917 , . . (.) . 1917-1929. : . . ., 2000, . 292.

200

, 4 1917 // . . , . 334.

201

. . D. Steinberg, Voices of Revolution, 1917 (New Haven, 2001), pp. 221-2.

202

In the Shadow of Revolution: Life Stories of Russian Women from 1917 tothe Second World War, trans. Y. Slezkine, eds. S. Fitzpatrick and Y. Slezkine (Princeton, 2000).

203

1917 , . Steinberg, Voices of Revolution, p. 21.

204

Wildman, End of the Russian Imperial Army, vol. i., p. 188.

205

Instruction, 18 October 191/, in Steinberg, Voices of Revolution, p. 232.

206

. Harding, Lenins Political Thought, bk 2, p. 53.

207

. . . , XXXIII, . 91.

208

, 7 1917.

209

. . . , XXXIV, . 316.

210

1917 . . S. Smith, Red Petrograd. Revolution in the Factories, 1917-18 (Cambridge, 1983), p. 198.

211

A Letter, in The Complete Works of Isaac Babel, trans. P. Constantine, ed. N. Babel (New York, 2002), pp. 208-12. . . . . .: , 1990.

212

. Patricia Carden, The Art of Isaac Babel (Ithaca and London, 1972), esp. p. 93.

213

. . . , XXXV, . 195-202.

214

. Figes, Peoples Tragedy, pp. 520-36.

215

, in In the Shadow of Revolution.

216

, The Way of Bitterness, in In the Shadow of Revolution, p. 156.

217

R. Fuelop-Miller, The Mind and Face of Bolshevism (New York, 1965), pp. 142-4; von Geldern, Bolshevik Festivals, pp. 156-60; R. Stites, Revolutionary Dreams. Utopian Vision and Experimental Life in the Russian Revolution (New York, 1989), pp. 94-5.

218

B. Taylor, Art and Literature under the Bolsheviks, Volume I: The Crisis of Renewal, 1917-1924 (London, 1991), pp. 56-60.

219

Stites, Revolutionary Dreams, pp. 88-90.

220

. . . , XXXVI, . 189-200.

221

. Bailes, Technology and Society under Lenin and Stalin. Origins of the Soviet Technical Intelligentsia, 1917-1941 (Princeton, 1978), p. 49.

222

. . Bailes, Alexei Gastev and the Soviet Controversy over Taylorism, l9l8-l924,, Soviet Studies 29 (1977), pp. 373-94; S. Smith, Taylorism Rules OK?, Radical Science Journal 13 (1983), pp. -27.

223

. . . , XXXVI, . 293

224

. . . , XLII, . 157.

225

N. Bukharin and E. Preobrzhensky, The ABC of Communism (Harmondsworth, 1969), p. 444.

226

. . . ., 1971. . 19.

227

Stites, Revolutionary Dreams, pp. 156-7.

228

. . , . Bailes, Alexei Gastev and the Soviet Controversy over Taylorism, pp. 377-8.

229

E. . .

230

. . von Hagen, Soldiers in the Proletarian Dictatorship: the Red Army and the Soviet Socialist State, 1917-1930 (Ithaca, 1990), ch. 1.

231

Holquist, Making War, pp. 232-40.

232

L. Trotsky, Terrorism and Communism (Ann Arbor, 1971), p. 170. . . . . .; ., 1926.

233

Von Hagen, Soldiers, pp. 89-114.

234

, . 107.

235

Sanborn, Drafting the Russian Nation, p. 178.

236

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