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NFS Protocols

Since one of the goals of NFS is to support a heterogeneous system, with clients and servers possibly running different operating systems on different hardware, it is essential that the interface between the clients and servers be well defined. Only then is it possible for anyone to be able to write a new client implementation and expect it to work correctly with existing servers, and vice versa.

NFS accomplishes this goal by defining two client-server protocols. A protocol is a set of requests sent by clients to servers, along with the corresponding replies sent by the servers back to the clients. (Protocols are an important topic in distributed systems; we will come back to them later in more detail.) As long as a server recognizes and can handle all the requests in the protocols, it need not know anything at all about its clients. Similarly, clients can treat servers as "black boxes" that accept and process a specific set of requests. How they do it is their own business.

The first NFS protocol handles mounting. A client can send a path name to a server and request permission to mount that directory somewhere in its directory hierarchy. The place where it is to be mounted is not contained in the message, as the server does not care where it is to be mounted. If the path name is legal and the directory specified has been exported, the server returns a file handle to the client. The file handle contains fields uniquely identifying the file system type, the disk, the i-node number of the directory, and security information. Subsequent calls to read and write files in the mounted directory use the file handle.

Many clients are configured to mount certain remote directories without manual intervention. Typically, these clients contain a file called /etc/rc, which is a shell script containing the remote mount commands. This shell script is executed automatically when the client is booted.

Alternatively, Sun's version of UNIX also supports automounting. This feature allows a set of remote directories to be associated with a local directory. None of these remote directories are mounted (or their servers even contacted) when the client is booted. Instead, the first time a remote file is opened, the operating system sends a message to each of the servers. The first one to reply wins, and its directory is mounted.

Automounting has two principal advantages over static mounting via the /etc/rc file. First, if one of the NFS servers named in /etc/rc happens to be down, it is impossible to bring the client up, at least not without some difficulty, delay, and quite a few error messages. If the user does not even need that server at the moment, all that work is wasted. Second, by allowing the client to try a set of servers in parallel, a degree of fault tolerance can be achieved (because only one of them need to be up), and the performance can be improved (by choosing the first one to reply — presumably the least heavily loaded).

On the other hand, it is tacitly assumed that all the file systems specified as alternatives for the automount are identical. Since NFS provides no support for file or directory replication, it is up to the user to arrange for all the file systems to be the same. Consequently, automounting is most often used for read-only file systems containing system binaries and other files that rarely change.

The second NFS protocol is for directory and file access. Clients can send messages to servers to manipulate directories and to read and write files. In addition, they can also access file attributes, such as file mode, size, and time of last modification. Most UNIX system calls are supported by NFS, with the perhaps surprising exception of OPEN and CLOSE.

The omission of OPEN and CLOSE is not an accident. It is fully intentional. It is not necessary to open a file before reading it, nor to close it when done. Instead, to read a file, a client sends the server a message containing the file name, with a request to look it up and return a file handle, which is a structure that identifies the file. Unlike an OPEN call, this LOOKUP operation does not copy any information into internal system tables. The READ call contains the file handle of the file to read, the offset in the file to begin reading, and the number of bytes desired. Each such message is self-contained. The advantage of this scheme is that the server does not have to remember anything about open connections in between calls to it. Thus if a server crashes and then recovers, no information about open files is lost, because there is none. A server like this that does not maintain state information about open files is said to be stateless.

In contrast, in UNIX System V, the Remote File System (RFS) requires a file to be opened before it can be read or written. The server then makes a table entry keeping track of the fact that the file is open, and where the reader currently is, so each request need not carry an offset. The disadvantage of this scheme is that if a server crashes and then quickly reboots, all open connections are lost, and client programs fail. NFS does not have this property.

Unfortunately, the NFS method makes it difficult to achieve the exact UNIX file semantics. For example, in UNIX a file can be opened and locked so that other processes cannot access it. When the file is closed, the locks are released. In a stateless server such as NFS, locks cannot be associated with open files, because the server does not know which files are open. NFS therefore needs a separate, additional mechanism to handle locking.

NFS uses the UNIX protection mechanism, with the rwx bits for the owner, group, and others. Originally, each request message simply contained the user and group ids of the caller, which the NFS server used to validate the access. In effect, it trusted the clients not to cheat. Several years' experience abundantly demonstrated that such an assumption was — how shall we put it? — naive. Currently, public key cryptography can be used to establish a secure key for validating the client and server on each request and reply. When this option is enabled, a malicious client cannot impersonate another client because it does not know that client's secret key. As an aside, cryptography is used only to authenticate the parties. The data themselves are never encrypted.

All the keys used for the authentication, as well as other information are maintained by the NIS (Network Information Service). The NIS was formerly known as the yellow pages. Its function is to store (key, value) pairs. when a key is provided, it returns the corresponding value. Not only does it handle encryption keys, but it also stores the mapping of user names to (encrypted) passwords, as well as the mapping of machine names to network addresses, and other items.

The network information servers are replicated using a master/slave arrangement. To read their data, a process can use either the master or any of the copies (slaves). However, all changes must be made only to the master, which then propagates them to the slaves. There is a short interval after an update in which the data base is inconsistent.

NFS Architecture | Distributed operating systems | NFS Implementation