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6.3.3. Causal Consistency

The causal consistency model (Hutto and Ahamad, 1990) represents a weakening of sequential consistency in that it makes a distinction between events that are potentially causally related and those that are not.

To see what causality is all about, consider an example from daily life (of a computer scientist). During a discussion on the relative merits of different programming languages in one of the USENET newsgroups, some hothead posts the message: "Anybody caught programming in FORTRAN should be shot." Very shortly thereafter, a cooler individual writes: "I am against capital punishment, even for major offenses against good taste." Due to varying delays along the message propagation paths, a third subscriber may get the reply first and become quite confused upon seeing it. The problem here is that causality has been violated. If event B is caused or influenced by an earlier event, A, causality requires that everyone else first see A, then see B.

Now consider a memory example. Suppose that process P1 writes a variable x. Then P2 reads x and writes y. Here the reading of x and the writing of y are potentially causally related because the computation of y may have depended on the value of x read by P2 (i.e., the value written by P1). On the other hand, if two processes spontaneously and simultaneously write two variables, these are not causally related.When there is a read followed later by a write, the twoevents are potentially causally related. Similarly, a read is causally related to the write that provided the data the read got. Operations that are not causally related are said to be concurrent.

For a memory to be considered causally consistent, it is necessary that the memory obey the following condition:

Writes that are potentially causally related must be seen by allprocesses in the same order. Concurrent writes may be seen in a different order on different machines.

As an example of causal consistency, consider Fig. 6-16. Here we have an event sequence that is allowed with a causally consistent memory, but which is forbidden with a sequentially consistent memory or a strictly consistent memory. The thing to note is that the writes W(x)2 and W(x)3 are concurrent, so it is not required that all processes see them in the same order. If the software fails when different processes see concurrent events in a different order, it has violated the memory contract offered by causal memory.

Distributed operating systems

Fig. 6-16. This sequence is allowed with causally consistent memory, but not with sequentially consistent memory or strictly consistent memory.

Now consider a second example. In Fig. 6-17(a) we have W(x)2 potentially depending on W(x)1 because the 2 may be a result of a computation involving the value read by R(x)1. The two writes are causally related, so all processes must see them in the same order. Therefore, Fig. 6-17(a) is incorrect. On the other hand, in Fig. 6-17(b) the read has been removed, so W(x)1 and W(x)2 are now concurrent writes. Causal memory does not require concurrent writes to be globally ordered, so Fig. 6-17(b) is correct.

Implementing causal consistency requires keeping track of which processes have seen which writes. It effectively means that a dependency graph of which operation is dependent on which other operations must be constructed and maintained. Doing so involves some overhead.

6.3.2. Sequential Consistency | Distributed operating systems | 6.3.4. PRAM Consistency and Processor Consistency